Face SPF15 moisturiser formulation

Phase INCI %age Function Info
1A Aqua 64.88 Solvent Solvent
1A Disodium EDTA 0.05 Chelating agent Edeta® BD is an amino-carboxylic acid with six functional groups whose characteristic reactions enable them to form complexes. It is used as an organic chelating agent for cosmetic formulations. It can sequester undesirable metal ions in cosmetic preparations, preventing precipitation of the salts responsible for water hardness and protecting against rancidity and colour changes caused by heavy metal ions. Appearance: white powder [1].
1A Betaine 1.00 Moisturising agent Betaine acts as a moisturiser, smoothing agent. It helps to reduce stickiness for softer and smoother skin feel. Betaine also help to maintain skin moisture balance [2]. Appearance: White, odourless crystals.
1B Glycerin 3.00 Humectant Glycerin is one of the most widely used ingredients in skincare products. This naturally occurring humectant is often used as moisturiser and solvent [3] Appearance: Colourless, odourless liquid.
1B Xanthan Gum 0.15 Rheology modifier Xanthan Gum designed for cosmetic use especially in sunscreens, lotions, creams hair care products. Enhances stability of emulsions. Provides light, silky skin feel [4]. Usage level: 0.2-1.0%. Appearance: Fine particle size beige powder. Direct addition to water not recommended. Should be dispersed in e.g. Glycerin and then added to water.
2 Ethylhexyl Salicylate 4.40 UVB filter Ethylhexyl Salicylate is secondary UVB absorber. Great solvent for other sunscreen actives. Typical usage level: 3-5% [5]. According to the European Cosmetic Directive 76/768/EEC, Eusolex OS is permitted as UV-Filter (Annex VII, part 1, reference no. 20), in a maximum authorized concentration of 5 % [6]. Appearance: Pale yellow liquid. Oil soluble.
2 Homosalate 3.30 UVB filter Homosalate is UVB filter with good formulation compatibility. It is a good solvent for hard to dissolve UV filters [7]. According to the European Cosmetic Directive 76/768/EEC, Homosalate is permitted as UV-Filter, (Annex VII, Part 1, and Reference No. 3) in a maximum authorized concentration of 10 % [8]. Appearance: Yellow liquid. Oil soluble.
2 Butyl Methoxydibenzoylmethane 3.00 UVA filter UVA filter. Needs to be solubilized to prevent crystallization. May react with heavy metals hence needs to be used with chelating agent. Have to be used with formaldehyde-free preservatives [9]. Maximum allowed concentration as UV filter in EU is 5% [10]. Appearance: Pale yellow crystalline powder. Oil soluble.
2 Octocrylene 6.05 UVB filter Secondary UVB absorber. Great dissolving properties for solid organic UV filters [11]. According to the European Cosmetic Directive 76/768/EEC, Octocrylene is permitted as UV-filter (Annex VII, Part 1, Reference No. 10) in a maximum authorized concentration of 10 % (expressed as acid) [12]. Appearance: Viscous yellow liquid. Oil soluble.
2 Tocopheryl Acetate 0.05 Antioxidant Excellent anti-oxidant properties. Appearance: Viscous, practically odourless liquid [13].
2 Arachidyl Alcohol (50-60%), Behenyl Alcohol (25-35%), Arachidyl Glucoside (10-20%) 2.50 Emulsifier A Produces emulsions with a very light, evanescent feel that are easy to apply and rapidly absorbed. These emulsions leave the skin feeling soft and non-greasy. This emulsifier provides long-lasting hydrating effect [14]. It’s hypoallergenic, non-comedogenic. Usage level: up to 5%. Appearance: Off white pellets.
2 Glyceryl Stearate (50-70%), Glyceryl Stearate Citrate (30-50%) 3.00 Emulsifier B Emulsions created with this emulsifier will have multi lamellar structure hence they are extremely compatible with the skin. Obtained creams provide very good spreadability without stickiness and oiliness. They leave silky, soft skin feel [15].
2 Phenoxyethyl Caprylate 5.00 Emollient Emollient with excellent organic UV filters solubility. Provides an elegant, non-tacky, non-oily texture in sun care formulations in which can boost SPF system slightly [16]. Usage level: 1-10%. Appearance: Clear liquid.
2 Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea) Butter 0.30 Emollient Provides soothing and replenishing properties. Ideal for lotion and cream preparations for dry skin [17]. Appearance: Off-white soft solid.
3 Sodium Hydroxide (32%), Aqua (68%) 0.12 pH modifier Sodium Hydroxide is inorganic based used as pH modifier and carbomer neutralizing agent. Miscible with water and ethanol. Appearance: is a colourless to liquid.
4 Parfum 0.50 Fragrance Allergen free fragrance to make product more pleasant in use and recognizable for users.
4 Panthenol (75%), Aqua (25%) 0.20 Conditioning agent D-Panthenol in skincare products will: Improve moisturising effect of the skin, making dry skin softer and more elastic. Has anti-inflammatory effect and soothes irritated skin. Helps to heal minor wounds after shaving, blisters [18]. Appearance: is a clear, colourless to slightly yellow, viscous liquid. Soluble in water, freely soluble in ethanol, slightly soluble in ether, and insoluble in fats and oils [19].
4 Phenoxyethanol (90%), Ethylhexylglycerin (10%) 1.00 Preservative Effective against bacteria, yeasts and mould fungi. Effective in pH up to 12 [20]. In accordance with the conditions stipulated in Directive 76/768/EEC Euxyl® PE 9010 may be used in cosmetic preparations (leave-on and rinse-off) in a use concentration up to a maximum of 1.1 %. Recommended usage level: 0.5-1.0%. Appearance: Nearly colourless liquid. Highly soluble in organic solvents like alcohols ethers. Limited solubility with water.
4 Aqua (>50%), Pentylene Glycol (5-10%), Glycerin (5-10%), Sodium Lactate (1-5%), Lactic Acid (1-5%), Serine (1-5%), Urea (1-5%), Sorbitol (1-5%), Sodium Chloride (0.1-1%), Allantoin(<0.1%) 1.00 Moisturising complex Synergistic blend of NMFs, humectants, hygroscopic substances, skin rejuvenators and skin protectants. Render skin smooth and supple. Increase skin flexibility [21]. Recommended usage level: 1-2%. Appearance: Clear liquid.
4 Hydrolyzed Lepidium Meyenii Root, Phenoxyethanol, Sorbic acid 0.50 Anti-ageing active Anti-ageing active, that helps to reduce wrinkles and enhance radiance of skin complexion [22]. Usage level: 0.5-2%. Appearance: Yellow to orange yellow liquid.

   In order to create SPF15 system, blend of 4 UV filters was used. Ethylhexyl Salicylate, Homosalate, and Octocrylene will provide UVB protection while Butyl Methoxydibenzoylmethane UVA protection. There is a possibility to calculate what SPF level used system will achieve. Calculated SPF for presented system is shown in Appendix 1. BASF Sunscreen Simulator was used for this purpose [23]. To confirm this calculation, SPF study has to be performed. Even though all UVB filters used in this formulation show good ability to solubilize other UV filters, Phenoxyethyl Caprylate was used to help solubilize crystals of Butyl Methoxydibenzoylmethane. This material was used on purpose instead of C12-15 Alkyl Benzoate used in a lot of SPF emulsions, due to its excellent UV filter solubility and non- oily, non-tacky after feel that this material provides. As mentioned in a table below, used UVA filter may react with heavy metals hence addition Disodium EDTA will help to prevent this process. Moreover it will boost preservative system as well.

   As this SPF15 is designed to use on daily basis for normal to dry skin the base shouldn’t be too heavy and greasy. In order to create stable emulsion, blend of two emulsifiers was used. Emulsifier A (Arachidyl Alcohol, Behenyl Alcohol, Arachidyl Glucoside) was chosen as it is used to produce creams with light texture and matt finish which provide long lasting moisturising effect. Emulsifier B (Glyceryl Stearate, Glyceryl Stearate Citrate) is extremely compatible with the skin. Creates non-sticky, non-oily emulsions with good spreadability. Water phase is stabilized with Xanthan Gum pre-dispersed in Glycerin, to avoid formation of lumps due to its rapid hydration characteristics.

   Preservative system – blend of Phenoxyethanol and Ethylhexylglycerin – broad spectrum very effective against bacteria, yeasts and mould, fungi. Ethylhexylglycerin affects the interfacial tension at the cell membrane of microorganisms, improving the preservative activity of Phenoxyethanol. As mentioned above addition of Disodium EDTA will boost preservative system efficacy.

   Addition of Shea Butter will help to prevent moisture loss, nourish and protect the skin.

   Active ingredients – To enhance moisturising effect of Betain, D-Panthenol and Hydrating complex was used. Betain will leave skin smoother and softer [2] while Hydrating complex, comprised of a synergistic blend of natural moisturizing factors, will increase skin flexibility and prevent signs of dry skin [21]. D-Panthenol penetrates the skin and helps to soothe irritated skin, improves and increases humidity properties of the skin [18]. For additional benefit, Anti-ageing active (Lepidium Meyenii Root Extract) was incorporated to fight against wrinkles and improve skin radiance [22]. Vitamin E, natural skin conditioning agent, enhance the efficacy of active sunscreen ingredients and reduce the formation of free radicals from exposure to UV rays.


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