- June 1, 2017
Face SPF15 moisturiser formulation
|1A||Disodium EDTA||0.05||Chelating agent||Edeta® BD is an amino-carboxylic acid with six functional groups whose characteristic reactions enable them to form complexes. It is used as an organic chelating agent for cosmetic formulations. It can sequester undesirable metal ions in cosmetic preparations, preventing precipitation of the salts responsible for water hardness and protecting against rancidity and colour changes caused by heavy metal ions. Appearance: white powder .|
|1A||Betaine||1.00||Moisturising agent||Betaine acts as a moisturiser, smoothing agent. It helps to reduce stickiness for softer and smoother skin feel. Betaine also help to maintain skin moisture balance . Appearance: White, odourless crystals.|
|1B||Glycerin||3.00||Humectant||Glycerin is one of the most widely used ingredients in skincare products. This naturally occurring humectant is often used as moisturiser and solvent  Appearance: Colourless, odourless liquid.|
|1B||Xanthan Gum||0.15||Rheology modifier||Xanthan Gum designed for cosmetic use especially in sunscreens, lotions, creams hair care products. Enhances stability of emulsions. Provides light, silky skin feel . Usage level: 0.2-1.0%. Appearance: Fine particle size beige powder. Direct addition to water not recommended. Should be dispersed in e.g. Glycerin and then added to water.|
|2||Ethylhexyl Salicylate||4.40||UVB filter||Ethylhexyl Salicylate is secondary UVB absorber. Great solvent for other sunscreen actives. Typical usage level: 3-5% . According to the European Cosmetic Directive 76/768/EEC, Eusolex OS is permitted as UV-Filter (Annex VII, part 1, reference no. 20), in a maximum authorized concentration of 5 % . Appearance: Pale yellow liquid. Oil soluble.|
|2||Homosalate||3.30||UVB filter||Homosalate is UVB filter with good formulation compatibility. It is a good solvent for hard to dissolve UV filters . According to the European Cosmetic Directive 76/768/EEC, Homosalate is permitted as UV-Filter, (Annex VII, Part 1, and Reference No. 3) in a maximum authorized concentration of 10 % . Appearance: Yellow liquid. Oil soluble.|
|2||Butyl Methoxydibenzoylmethane||3.00||UVA filter||UVA filter. Needs to be solubilized to prevent crystallization. May react with heavy metals hence needs to be used with chelating agent. Have to be used with formaldehyde-free preservatives . Maximum allowed concentration as UV filter in EU is 5% . Appearance: Pale yellow crystalline powder. Oil soluble.|
|2||Octocrylene||6.05||UVB filter||Secondary UVB absorber. Great dissolving properties for solid organic UV filters . According to the European Cosmetic Directive 76/768/EEC, Octocrylene is permitted as UV-filter (Annex VII, Part 1, Reference No. 10) in a maximum authorized concentration of 10 % (expressed as acid) . Appearance: Viscous yellow liquid. Oil soluble.|
|2||Tocopheryl Acetate||0.05||Antioxidant||Excellent anti-oxidant properties. Appearance: Viscous, practically odourless liquid .|
|2||Arachidyl Alcohol (50-60%), Behenyl Alcohol (25-35%), Arachidyl Glucoside (10-20%)||2.50||Emulsifier A||Produces emulsions with a very light, evanescent feel that are easy to apply and rapidly absorbed. These emulsions leave the skin feeling soft and non-greasy. This emulsifier provides long-lasting hydrating effect . It’s hypoallergenic, non-comedogenic. Usage level: up to 5%. Appearance: Off white pellets.|
|2||Glyceryl Stearate (50-70%), Glyceryl Stearate Citrate (30-50%)||3.00||Emulsifier B||Emulsions created with this emulsifier will have multi lamellar structure hence they are extremely compatible with the skin. Obtained creams provide very good spreadability without stickiness and oiliness. They leave silky, soft skin feel .|
|2||Phenoxyethyl Caprylate||5.00||Emollient||Emollient with excellent organic UV filters solubility. Provides an elegant, non-tacky, non-oily texture in sun care formulations in which can boost SPF system slightly . Usage level: 1-10%. Appearance: Clear liquid.|
|2||Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea) Butter||0.30||Emollient||Provides soothing and replenishing properties. Ideal for lotion and cream preparations for dry skin . Appearance: Off-white soft solid.|
|3||Sodium Hydroxide (32%), Aqua (68%)||0.12||pH modifier||Sodium Hydroxide is inorganic based used as pH modifier and carbomer neutralizing agent. Miscible with water and ethanol. Appearance: is a colourless to liquid.|
|4||Parfum||0.50||Fragrance||Allergen free fragrance to make product more pleasant in use and recognizable for users.|
|4||Panthenol (75%), Aqua (25%)||0.20||Conditioning agent||D-Panthenol in skincare products will: Improve moisturising effect of the skin, making dry skin softer and more elastic. Has anti-inflammatory effect and soothes irritated skin. Helps to heal minor wounds after shaving, blisters . Appearance: is a clear, colourless to slightly yellow, viscous liquid. Soluble in water, freely soluble in ethanol, slightly soluble in ether, and insoluble in fats and oils .|
|4||Phenoxyethanol (90%), Ethylhexylglycerin (10%)||1.00||Preservative||Effective against bacteria, yeasts and mould fungi. Effective in pH up to 12 . In accordance with the conditions stipulated in Directive 76/768/EEC Euxyl® PE 9010 may be used in cosmetic preparations (leave-on and rinse-off) in a use concentration up to a maximum of 1.1 %. Recommended usage level: 0.5-1.0%. Appearance: Nearly colourless liquid. Highly soluble in organic solvents like alcohols ethers. Limited solubility with water.|
|4||Aqua (>50%), Pentylene Glycol (5-10%), Glycerin (5-10%), Sodium Lactate (1-5%), Lactic Acid (1-5%), Serine (1-5%), Urea (1-5%), Sorbitol (1-5%), Sodium Chloride (0.1-1%), Allantoin(<0.1%)||1.00||Moisturising complex||Synergistic blend of NMFs, humectants, hygroscopic substances, skin rejuvenators and skin protectants. Render skin smooth and supple. Increase skin flexibility . Recommended usage level: 1-2%. Appearance: Clear liquid.|
|4||Hydrolyzed Lepidium Meyenii Root, Phenoxyethanol, Sorbic acid||0.50||Anti-ageing active||Anti-ageing active, that helps to reduce wrinkles and enhance radiance of skin complexion . Usage level: 0.5-2%. Appearance: Yellow to orange yellow liquid.|
In order to create SPF15 system, blend of 4 UV filters was used. Ethylhexyl Salicylate, Homosalate, and Octocrylene will provide UVB protection while Butyl Methoxydibenzoylmethane UVA protection. There is a possibility to calculate what SPF level used system will achieve. Calculated SPF for presented system is shown in Appendix 1. BASF Sunscreen Simulator was used for this purpose . To confirm this calculation, SPF study has to be performed. Even though all UVB filters used in this formulation show good ability to solubilize other UV filters, Phenoxyethyl Caprylate was used to help solubilize crystals of Butyl Methoxydibenzoylmethane. This material was used on purpose instead of C12-15 Alkyl Benzoate used in a lot of SPF emulsions, due to its excellent UV filter solubility and non- oily, non-tacky after feel that this material provides. As mentioned in a table below, used UVA filter may react with heavy metals hence addition Disodium EDTA will help to prevent this process. Moreover it will boost preservative system as well.
As this SPF15 is designed to use on daily basis for normal to dry skin the base shouldn’t be too heavy and greasy. In order to create stable emulsion, blend of two emulsifiers was used. Emulsifier A (Arachidyl Alcohol, Behenyl Alcohol, Arachidyl Glucoside) was chosen as it is used to produce creams with light texture and matt finish which provide long lasting moisturising effect. Emulsifier B (Glyceryl Stearate, Glyceryl Stearate Citrate) is extremely compatible with the skin. Creates non-sticky, non-oily emulsions with good spreadability. Water phase is stabilized with Xanthan Gum pre-dispersed in Glycerin, to avoid formation of lumps due to its rapid hydration characteristics.
Preservative system – blend of Phenoxyethanol and Ethylhexylglycerin – broad spectrum very effective against bacteria, yeasts and mould, fungi. Ethylhexylglycerin affects the interfacial tension at the cell membrane of microorganisms, improving the preservative activity of Phenoxyethanol. As mentioned above addition of Disodium EDTA will boost preservative system efficacy.
Addition of Shea Butter will help to prevent moisture loss, nourish and protect the skin.
Active ingredients – To enhance moisturising effect of Betain, D-Panthenol and Hydrating complex was used. Betain will leave skin smoother and softer  while Hydrating complex, comprised of a synergistic blend of natural moisturizing factors, will increase skin flexibility and prevent signs of dry skin . D-Panthenol penetrates the skin and helps to soothe irritated skin, improves and increases humidity properties of the skin . For additional benefit, Anti-ageing active (Lepidium Meyenii Root Extract) was incorporated to fight against wrinkles and improve skin radiance . Vitamin E, natural skin conditioning agent, enhance the efficacy of active sunscreen ingredients and reduce the formation of free radicals from exposure to UV rays.
 Disodium EDTA brochure, Available at https://www.ulprospector.com/documents/1188153.pdf?bs=804&b=302771&st=1&sl=33282627&crit=a2V5d29yZDpbZGlzb2RpdW0gRURUQV0%3d&k=disodium|EDTA
 Betafin BP20 technical datasheet, Available at http://cosmetics.specialchem.com/product/i-dupont-betafin-bp-20,
 G. Deckner, Glycerin: A Significant Humectant; available at https://knowledge.ulprospector.com/2264/pcc-glycerin-significant-humectant/
 Keltrol CG-f datasheet, Available at https://www.ulprospector.com/documents/1243186.pdf?bs=2535&b=365225&st=1&sl=34150064&crit=a2V5d29yZDpbeGFudGhhbiBndW1d&k=xanthan|gum|gums,
Ashland Skincare Specialties brochure, Available at https://www.ulprospector.com/documents/1183373.pdf?bs=4989&b=7605&st=1&sl=34146763&crit=RXRoeWxoZXh5bCBTYWxpY3lsYXRl,
 Eusolex OS datasheet, Merck KGaA, Available at https://www.ulprospector.com/en/eu/PersonalCare/Detail/824/34420/Eusolex-OS?st=1&sl=34146716&crit=RXRoeWxoZXh5bCBTYWxpY3lsYXRl&ss=2,
 Escalol™ HMS datasheet, Available at https://www.ulprospector.com/documents/1195809.pdf?bs=4989&b=330229&st=1&sl=34147025&crit=a2V5d29yZDpbaG9tb3NhbGF0ZV0%3d&k=homosalate,
 Eusolex HMS datasheet, Available at https://www.ulprospector.com/documents/56536.pdf?bs=824&b=120463&st=1&sl=34146973&crit=a2V5d29yZDpbaG9tb3NhbGF0ZV0%3d&k=homosalate,
 Escalol 517 datasheet, Available at https://www.ulprospector.com/documents/37438.pdf?bs=4989&b=25719&st=1&sl=34147294&crit=QnV0eWwgTWV0aG94eWRpYmVuem95bG1ldGhhbmU%3d,
 Parsol 1789 datasheet, Available at https://www.ulprospector.com/documents/1188068.pdf?bs=472&b=106662&st=1&0sl=34147243&crit=QnV0eWwgTWV0aG94eWRpYmVuem95bG1ldGhhbmU%3d,
 Eusolex: UV filters for cosmetics, Available at https://www.ulprospector.com/documents/60682.pdf?bs=824&b=120463&st=1&sl=34147470&crit=a2V5d29yZDpbaG9tb3NhbGF0ZV0%3d&k=homosalate,
 Eusolex OCR datasheet, Available at https://www.ulprospector.com/documents/56540.pdf?bs=824&b=34419&st=1&sl=34147545&crit=a2V5d29yZDpbb2N0b2NyeWxlbmVd&k=octocrylene,
 RonaCare® Tocopheryl Acetate datasheet, Merck KGaA, Available at https://www.ulprospector.com/documents/1049027.pdf?bs=824&b=127359&st=1&sl=33387149&crit=a2V5d29yZDpbdG9jb3BoZXJ5bCBhY2V0YXRlXQ%3d%3d&k=tocopheryl|acetate,
 Montanov 202 datasheet, Available at https://www.ulprospector.com/documents/1133852.pdf?bs=1431&b=54516&st=1&sl=34147615&crit=a2V5d29yZDpbbW9udGFub3Zd&k=montanov,
 Blanova Muls ECO77, Available at http://www.bestchem.hu/bestchem/en/surplus/product/10817,
 Tegosoft XC datasheet, Available at https://www.ulprospector.com/documents/1123137.pdf?bs=1481&b=193185&st=1&sl=34149078&crit=a2V5d29yZDpbdGVnb3NvZnQgeGNd&k=tegosoft|xc,
 Seatons Shea Nut Butter datasheet, Available at https://www.ulprospector.com/documents/1344236.pdf?bs=1409&b=61549&st=1&sl=34149255&crit=QnV0eXJvc3Blcm11bSBQYXJraWkgKFNoZWEpIEJ1dHRlcg%3d%3d,
 D- Panthenol datasheet, DSM, Available at http://www.healthart.gr/images/pdf/7.AQUARECALM%20cream%20file.pdf%20D-PANTHENOL.pdf
 D-Panthenol datasheet, DSM, Available at https://www.ulprospector.com/en/eu/PersonalCare/Detail/472/317137/D-Panthenol?st=1,
 Euxyl PE9010 datasheet, Available at https://www.ulprospector.com/documents/773950.pdf?bs=2987&b=74345&st=1,
 Hydroviton 24 datasheet, Available at https://www.ulprospector.com/en/eu/PersonalCare/Detail/3029/210576/Hydroviton-24?st=1&sl=46786673&crit=a2V5d29yZDpbaHlkcm92aXRvbiAyNF0%3d&ss=2&k=hydroviton|24&t=hydroviton+24,
 Skinergium 2 datasheet, Available at https://www.ulprospector.com/documents/1279768.pdf?bs=3035&b=386046&st=1&sl=34149312&crit=a2V5d29yZDpbc2tpbmVyZ2l1bV0%3d&k=skinergium,
 BASF Sunscreen Simulator, Available at https://www.sunscreensimulator.basf.com/Sunscreen_Simulator/Login_show.action;jsessionid=71D8CE1E29B7D7E9A7C29F58140B323F
- May 3, 2017
Advisable UV protection level in the UK
A lot of people associate term “sunburn” with holidays, but the fact is more than a third of the people who took part in a survey in the UK (where I live) admitted that their last sunburn was actually in the UK . Most of the time it happens when people are “out and about” – having walk in a town, gardening, washing a car etc. Therefore it is really important to use SPF products on daily bases whether it’s simple SPF moisturiser or proper sunscreen.
In the UK between October and March, UV Index is normally 3 and lower, so people with fair skin shouldn’t need UV protection. In the summer UV rays are strongest between 11am-3pm so it’s recommended to stay in the shadow when the sun is strong. When it’s not possible people should wear T-shirt, sunglasses and use sunscreen with at least SPF15 .
There is a useful tool, UV Index, that can show how strong UV rays are and where’s the higher risk of being sunburned. UV index is expected amount of UV radiation prediction that is expected to reach earth surface when sun is at its highest point (midday). UV radiation amount that reaches the surfaces depends on amount of ozone in stratosphere, amounts of clouds, therefore UV index changes every day and is different each time of the year. The highest is at summer solstice and lowest at Winter solstice . UV index differs form 0 (at night) to 10. Normally UV Index in the UK is not higher than 8, but there was few days last year when it was (UV Index) around 9 and 10. When the person knows what their skin type is, it’s easy to find out when they need to protect themselves more against UV rays.
Using “Skin type” is way to categorise skins sensitivity to the sun. In 1975 Fitzpatrick proposed classification of patient’s phototype , ability to burn and tan when skin is exposed to UV radiation which is shown in table below.
|I||Always burns, never tans (very pale skin, freckles, generally fair, red or sandy hair)|
|II||Burns easily, tans minimally (Usually white UK skin types with fair hair, generally blue eyes)|
|III||Sometimes burns, average tan (usually white UK skin types, slightly darker complexion, with dark hair)|
|IV||Burns minimally, tans well (usual Mediterranean olive skin types)|
|V||Rarely burns, tans easily ( Indian, some Asian skin types)|
|VI||Dark brown or black skin (Afro Caribbean skin types)|
Table 1. Skin types according to Fitzpatrick scale .
The higher UV index is, the bigger dose of UV radiation reach the skin. Please see table below to see risk of burning depending on skin type and UV Index.
UV Index forecasts can be checked at the Met Office website metoffice.gov.uk for each part of the UK.
To simplify the SPF number needed for proper skin protection European Commission recommended SPF numbers and their Protection Categories presented in a table below.
|Labelled Protection Category||Labelling SPF (Sun Protection Factor)|
Table 3. SPF number and their protection categories .
Minimum advisable SPF in the UK according to Cancer Research UK  is “at least SPF15 (the higher the better) with good UVA protection (the more stars the better)” and according to British Association of Dermatologists  –“at least SPF30 which also has high UVA protection”. It’s people individual choice which SPF grade meets their own requirements depending on their skin type. For me it’s mostly SPF 15 moisturiser that I use every day as my skin type is III.
 Am I at risk of sunburn, Cancer Research UK, http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/about-cancer/causes-of-cancer/sun-uv-and-cancer/am-i-at-risk-of-sunburn, (Accessed 11.06.15)
 Preventing Skin Cancer, Cancer Research UK, Available at http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/about-cancer/type/skin-cancer/about/preventing-skin-cancer, Accessed 11.06.15)
 The UV Index, Available at http://www.weatheronline.co.uk/reports/wxfacts/The-UV-Index.htm, (Accessed 14.06.15)
 V. A. Narurkar, Cosmetic Dermatology, Dermatologic Clinics, Elsevier Health Sciences, 2009 – 138
 http://www.thefactsabout.co.uk/sun-protection-products/content/94 (Accessed 10.06.15)
 Sunscreen fact sheet, British Association of Dermatologists, Available at http://www.bad.org.uk/for-the-public/skin-cancer/sunscreen-fact-sheet, (Accessed 20.06.15)
- April 25, 2017
Moisturisers with Sun protection
More and more customers in the UK are anxious about results of over-exposure to the sun, hence sun protection volume sales increased. Apart from proper Sunscreens intended to use as primary sun protection (when swimming, sun bathing), there is a lot of SPF moisturisers which offers additional benefits. Consumers will link daily SPF products additional benefits such as anti-ageing i.e. wrinkles, improving skin elasticity, protection against age spots / blemishes etc.
Sun protection products are intended to defend the skin against harmful UV rays. UV rays are classified as follows to UVA, UVB and UVC rays .
- UVA – is the longest of the three at 320-400 nanometer. Affects elastin in the skin which leads to sun-induced skin ageing, wrinkles and skin cancer. It penetrates skin deeper than UVB rays, which cause direct damage to supporting tissues.
- UVB – ranges from 290 to 320 nm. It is responsible for inflamed skin and sunburn. It is linked to risk of malignant melanoma and basal cell carcinoma (skin cancer types).
- UVC – is absorbed by the ozone layer and does not reach the earth.
Moisturisers that have ability to protect our skin against UV rays contain UV filters. UV filters are chemical substances that are classified in two following categories: synthetic/organic filters that absorb UV radiation, convert it and give it back out as infrared and mineral/inorganic filters which reflect UV radiation away from the skin (shown on picture below ). Combination of both types of UV filters should be used in these products for optimum effect.
Moisturisers offering UV protection are called SPF Moisturisers. SPF stands for Sun Protection Factor and “expresses their capacity of protection from erythrema after UV exposure. SPF therefore essentially translates protection from UVBR” – UVB radiation . Moisturiser that claims SPF15 permit to stay in a sunlight 15 times longer than without protection. The SPF can be enhanced by controlling rheology of a product primarily film as If film is too thin, there is not enough coverage. If film is too thick on the other side, it can affect spreadability, therefore balance between coverage and spreadability has to be maintained.
Moisturiser offering UVA protection should have UVA logo on the pack letters “UVA” in a circle shown on a figure below.
It is recommended by European Commission to choose products offering UVA and UVB protection as both UVB and UVA can cause sunburn, skin cancer, and premature skin ageing.
Daily use of SPF moisturisers is as important as using a sunscreen with suitable SPF. SPF It is advised to use separate products for face and body. Moisturiser with UV protection usage has following advantages.
- Daily use will decrease a chance of a skin cancer on the condition of using suitable SPF moisturiser grade (minimum SPF15 is advised) for your skin type.
- As sun exposure can create dryness, applied SPF moisturise will hydrate the skin thanks to emollient and skin conditioning agents content.
- Using SPF moisturiser helps to protect collagen and elastin breakdown therefore skin appears more moisturised and is less prone to fine wrinkles and fine lines.
- There is variety of SPF moisturisers developed for different skin types. Therefore you can choose sun protecting cream for your needs, such as SPF moisturisers for acne- prone skin which are oil-free with non-comedogenic UV filters.
- Using SPF moisturisers all year long will help fight the first sings of photo-damaged skin which will lead to healthier looking skin in the future.
- A lot of people experience discoloration on certain areas of the skin as part of natural ageing process. Proper protection with SPF moisturisers can help with reducing these malpigmented areas of the skin.
- As there is so many SPF moisturisers on the market on various price ranges which make them affordable regardless the budget.
- Market research showed that SPF trend is maintained in skin care but peaks through to hair care as well so that hair could be protected from sun exposure as well.
You need to remember to wear protective clothing as well as spending as much time as possible in the shade. When sunbathing or swimming, water resistant / rub-resistant sunscreens should be used for proper protection. As mentioned in one of the sections above daily use of SPF moisturisers will decrease chances of skin cancer. Only using decent amount of suitable for individual skin type and appropriate for living area (UV Index factor) sun protection product will help to defend our skin.
It is important to remember that sun protection products should never be used to spend more time in the sun .
 UV irradiation types, Available at http://www.skincancer.org/prevention/uva-and-uvb/understanding-uva-and-uvb, (Accessed 10.06.15)
 J. Reichrath, Sunlight, Vitamin D and Skin Cancer, Springer Science & Business Media, 08.01.2009 – 323
 http://www.thefactsabout.co.uk/sun-protection-products/content/94 (Accessed 10.06.15)